Camus der Mythos von Sisyphos    Arendt Vita activa  Maturana Vom Sein zum Tun

This has been a problem at least since mass industrialization began to accelerate in the nineteenth century. Fyodor Dostoyevsky opened his classic 1862 account of prison life, The House of the Dead (Ergänzung:  ) , with a paean to the importance of work – even for those in Siberian penal colonies. Ordinary activities like creating an object or even cleaning a room can confer a sense of self-worth, he observed. But the pointless toil assigned to prisoners – such as digging and then refilling holes – did the opposite: it was meant to destroy their dignity and annihilate their sense of self.